High prevalence of sternal foramina in indigenous Bolivians compared to Midwest Americans and indigenous North Americans (sternal foramina in indigenous Bolivians)

Benjamin Gans, Angela Neunuebel, Leah Umbarger, Benjamin C. Trumble, Daniel Cummings, Samuel Wann, Kyle Lehenbauer, Ashna Mahadev, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, David Michalik, Christophe J. Rowan, Caleb Finch, Linda Sutherland, James Sutherland, Adel Allam, Jonathan Stieglitz, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan, Gregory Thomas, and Randall Thompson


The sternal foramen, usually an asymptomatic osteological defect, can lead to catastrophic consequences if not recognized prior to certain medical procedures. This study reports the prevalence of a sternal foramen in two South Amerindian populations compared with other published populations. We evaluated the presence of sternal foramina using thoracic computed tomography scans of 1334 (48% female) participants from two indigenous populations of Bolivia (n = 900 Tsimane, 434 Moseten). The prevalence of sternal foramina was compared to two U.S. populations of similar sex/age distribution (n = 572 Midwest Americans, 131 self-identified Native North Americans) via similar CT scans. A sternal foramen was significantly more common in the two Bolivian populations (prevalence ranging from 12.8 to 13.4%), compared to 4.4–5.1% in the two U.S. groups, consistent with prior estimates in studies from industrialized populations. Males had higher frequency of a sternal foramen compared to females in each of the four groups (OR = 1.904, 95% CI: 1.418–2.568, p < 0.001). Age was not associated with sternal foramen presence. These data show both a higher rate of sternal foramina in the South Amerindian populations versus comparator populations in North America and the highest rate of any studied living population. Although it is not possible to determine from our data the relative contribution of genetics versus early life or environmental causes to the higher rates of sternal foramen, we note that small prior studies have likewise demonstrated a higher prevalence in lower income countries. Further determination of the contributing factors warrants greater investigation and research.

Published in

Anatomical Science International, vol. 4, May 2021